How Perfume Ingredients are formed?

A short direction on how to perform the techniques used

perfume ingredientsPerfume bottle clenches more than just a fantasy. It’s a superb product requiring efforts from perception to fabrication. Ingredients are some of the most laborious work to do. Whether the materials are natural raw or manufactured in the lab, perfume constituents entail an intricate procedure to yield their splendor into your favored eau de toilette or eau de parfum.

But how can they be obtained? Simple and time-honored methods for the extraction of pungent mixtures include the following:

  1. Expression
  2. Distillation
  3. Enfleurage

Now, how each of them works? Let’s see…


When juicing an orange, you will notice and smell the petite droplets that vaporize swiftly when you press it. This volatile essence ensnared in the rind is also freed unto the air when rubbing the rind with a pin.

Expression is one of the hoariest techniques of rendering fragrant substances using pressure to discharge aroma.

By using pressure in machines operated manually and now fully automated, the raw material is pressed to bring forth an Essential Oil. It is the ideal technique for extracting oils from the rind of citrus fruits utilized in the Hesperidic fragrance family.

This technique was founded in ancient Egypt during the time that proto-expression was predominantly in use. The raw material was trampled and positioned in unglazed ceramics and submerged in the desert to allow the water diffuse by the porous substance chambers to its tiny molecular size parting the fragrant oils behind.


Expression is truly self-evident as described above and was mainly used in the ancient times but some popular plants repelled it. Consequently, an advanced technique was developed during the middle Ages, commenced by the Arabs, in which an alembic is utilized to extract the more resilient plants like a rose.

Distillation is a procedure of splitting the constituent substances from a liquid combination through selective evaporation and condensation. The vapor from the steaming water passes through the raw material in more than 1 and a half hour to drive out majority of the volatile aromatic compounds. Distillation’s condensate, containing water and the aromatic oils, is established in a Florentine flask. This permits the easy splitting of the fragrant oils from the water as the oil will drift at the top of the distillate. The oily part is gathered, producing an Essential Oil, while the water residual with some aromatic stuffs intact is called a Hydrosol or what we call water distillate. Sometimes it is used and sold – especially the orange blossom, lavender and roses hydrosols. Herbs and green leaves like peppermint, basil, lavender, geranium, eucalyptus and palmarosa are distilled.


Last but not the least, Enfleurage is the extraction process initiated in Grasse in the south of France which is the perfume capital of the world. Valued in its zenith for its ability to catch the intoxicating aroma of valuable floras that “lost” their prized garland in distillation like tuberose or jasmine, it’s a dual step procedure.

Platters of animal fat are utilized to “dress” the floras, where they soften for few days on end to the point of aromatic permeation, before the subsequent wax is washed with wholesome alcohol to extract an “Absolute”. Two variants of the method occur:

  1. Cold Enfleurage – performed in the 19th century
  2. Hot Enfleurage – the fat is softly frenzied while botanic matter was stimulated into the fat

Today, Enfleurage is abandoned due to its high-priced cost, although enhanced methods have outmoded it.